is located in wonderful Ksani gorge, named by river Ksani. Running
down through the canyon about ninety kilometers and connecting by
the way few small tributaries it falls into river Mtkvari from the
the end of 1V- beginning of 111 century BC the King of Georgia
becomes Parnavaz, the adherent of Persian orientation, who
have provided in the country the administrative- territorial
reform " in Persian own image". For this time
in upper stream of Ksani was formed small administrative-territorial
unit – Tskhradzmis Saerista vo,
a part of Shida Kartli saspanseto ( a province). In 70-th
of V1 Iran and Byzantine were at war for domination over
Kartli. The collisions between sides were especially strong
in Ksani gorge, where both side have had their supporters.
The war between rulers with Persian orientation and population
of Tskhradzmis Saeristavo preferred Byzantine lasted five
In the beginning
the success was on the side of Iranian adherents and their opponents
were forced to step back in Tskhradzma, but shortly after they received
the reinforcement in the head with Rostom Bibiluri. Rostom was experienced
warrior and gifted military leader what is more than once noted
in chronicle. The Tskhradzma home guards under his leadership quickly
became a winner.
Due to active support of Tskhradzma Byzantine takes the leader position
in Kartli and after in 70-th of V1 the Byzantine Caesar appoints
Rostom Bibiluri the eristavi of Tskhradzma.
In this period the Tskhradzma Saeristavo consolidates seven more
small administrative units ( gorges ) –sakhevistavo: Tskhradzma,
Karchokhi, Jamuri, Sadzeguri, Kolotvitkiri, Churta and Isroli. All
above mentioned territorial units were governed by " head of
gorge" – khevistavi, directly submitted to eristavi.
After Rostom Tskhradzma eristavi becomes his son Largveli and after-
Dimitry. Nothing is known about political situation after rule of
Dimitry and up to X111 century.
In the end of X111 - beginning of X1V centuries the borderline of
administrative unit Tskhradzma was running approximately near the
modern village Korintha, just in the beginning of marshy part the
Mongol invasion, favoured by internecine dissension in Georgia,
reduced the Georgian state system. There was a cruel struggle
for power between three aspirants for Georgian throne –
David V111, Vakhtang 111 and George V. The winner in this
struggle with active support of Mongolians became Vakhtang
1327 was finished the three-years war for liberation of
Gori, captured by Ossets. In the fights especially distinguished
were Tskhradzma guards, leadered by Vershil 11. In this
period the Mongolian power was reduced.After
some time after liberation of Gori on the mount Lomisi there
was encounters between citizens of Tskhradzma and mountaineers
The goal of the battles was to submit the mountaineers under the
rule of Tskhradzma eristavi, but in spite of defeat, the Aragvian
mountaineers kept the independence.
During approximately 40 years, beginning from the end of 40-th of
X1V century, the Tskhradzma saeristavo was in conditions of permanent
war with Aragvian mountaineers, submitted directly to Kings of Georgia.
In the beginning of 80-th years of XIV century the winner in inner
wars in ex-state of Iranian Ilkhans becomes Tamerlan, which bent
to his rule the main part of the country.
In the second part of the same decade Georgia found itself before
a new outside peril – the threat of new invasion of Tamerlan
The danger, raised before the country, played the consolidate role
in home policy of Georgia: the Tamerlan invasions caused for definite
time the abolishment of local provincial kingdoms system.
In the end of XIV century Georgia was in the point of intersection
of two countervail forces – Tamerlan and Tokhtamish, which
provoked 8 times intrusion of Tamerlan in Georgia. The resistance
of rulers of Georgia was heroic and in few cases, true not numerous,
it was successful.
In the beginning of 1398 the Tskhradzma eristavi Vershil 111 on
the instructions of King of Georgia George VII provides the military
campaign in Dvaleti and mountainous part of Kartli, followed with
suppression of dvali and Kartli mountaineers, and their submission
to central Georgian government.
The analyze of written sources testifies that up to 1398 the Ossets
did not settle in the upper stream of river Ksani.
In 1400 Tamerlan for the six time intruded into Georgia, smashed
up and ravaged nearly completely the Eastern part.
Tskhradzma eristavi Vershil III gained a victory in the battle before
fortress Bekhushi and after without any convoy left to visit his
family in Knogo. Upper and lower dvali, while learned that Vershil
is in Knogo without any guarding, tried to attack him, but timely
informed eristavi, succeeded to escape. Vershil III did not forgive
citizens of Knogo their treachery and in short time excellently
punished them, in 1401 together with army of King George VII and
Aragvi eristavi Surameli he intruded into Dveleti and punished dvali.
Vershil III was eristavi of Tskhradzma from the beginning of 90-th
years of XIV and up to 1422.
Two first decades of XV century were marked by broad constructive
activities and enlightenment in Tskhradzma saeristavo, favoured
by settling in Ksani gorge well-known in those time Church man George
In this time Tskhradzma saeristavo was a cover and depository of
Georgian treasury, church values and manuscripts.
the exposition of Museum-reserve of history, archeology and architecture
of Ksani gorge of Akhalgori district is presented the lower part
of candlestick with inscription runs that candlestick in 1791 was
donated to the Church of St.George in Tsirkoli by Maria Tsitsishvili,
wife of prince George. It was determined that candlestick was prepared
in the same 1791 in royal jewelry shop by jeweler Arutin.
There were ancient gold-blacksmith's shops in Ksanu gorge where
was manufactured for local use different private adornments and
church-plates, crosses, icons and etc.
In the second half of the 16th c. Ksani eristavate shared all the
joys and sorrows of Kartli Kingdom.
Elizbar, Ksani eristavi, acted in accordance with the demands of
the time, revealing all the positive and negative traits characteristic
of the epoch. At first he was a supporter of the king Simon I, than
- his opponent and afterwards again supported the king. In 1576,
when king Simeon I was help captive in Persia, Elizbar, together
with Bardzim Amilakhori , insulted the dignity of the queen Nestan-Darejan.
In 1578, large Turkish troops under the command of Lasha Mustafa
Pasha intruded into Georgia. King Dautkhan cold not resist the Turks.
Elizbar, Ksani eristavi, Bardzim amilakhori and Vakhtang Mukhranbatoni
, ruller of Kartli, left alone against numerous enemies, surrendered
to the Turks and saved Shida Kartli from the brigandage.
Laiter the king Simeon I returned Kartli from the Persian captivity,
successfully defeated Turks and prepared to punish treacherous feudal
lords - Elizbar and Bardzim Amilakhori. However, Elizbar managed
to reconcile with the queen and compensate the insult of her dignity
by giving up Akhalgori and Mejuda. Due to his flexible policy, Elizbar
seems to have soon returned his lost territories.
Historical evidence on the political activity of Ksani Eristavs
in early 17th c. is available from 1609 onwards. at this period
the war between Persia and Turkey for the domination in the Transcaucasus
(begin in 1602) was continued.
In 1609 Shalva - Ksani eristavi - had played a significant part
in Tashiskari battle- having blocked the road leading to Akhaltsikhe,
he had saved the city from the Turkish invasion.
In 1614 Lese has become Ksani eristavi, having received the title
from Shah Abass in Georgia. Lese was the son-in-low of George Saakadze
- king of Georgia. In 1620, having taken the side of Andukapar Amilakhori,
Lese, Ksani eristavi, killed Papuna Amilakhori.
In 1625, together with other Georgian noblemen, Lese had played
a significant part in the battle in Karchokhi on the river Ksani
(August-September 1625). The Georgians, having used Mongol battle
rules, had almost completely slaughtered 12,000 Persian army.
In 1642 Lese, Ksani eristavi, was killed by the sons of Papuna Amilakhori.
In 1642-1639 confrontation between the king Rostom and his oppositional
feudals continued. Ksani Eristavs were again involved in the confrontation,
which ended with the victory of the royal power.
In March, 1657 in the current political process the opposition group
(Elizbar Eristavi, Bidzina Cholokashvili with the head Zaal Eristavi)
against Vakhtang Mukhran-Batoni the inheritor of Rostom was revealed.
Thay Thought of different territorial arrangement of the East Georgia
in the subordination of Iran. The new administrative unit had to
include: the Whole Kakheti, the territory of Aragvi and Ksani eristavi.
The Iran kingdom hadn't thought of that plan as its goal had been
to settle down Turkmenian tribes in Kakheti in order to form the
bounder between the Northern Caucasians and Georgians. In fact,
the East Georgia would turn into the internal province of Iran.
In 1658, Rostom the king of Kartli died and Vakhtang was crowned.
Together with the other noblemen Zaal Aragvis Eristavi, Elizbar
Ksnis Eristavi and Bidzina Cholokashvili didn't recognize the reign
of Vakhtang. To stabilize the tension situation the separatists
were summoned to Iran. The court of Shahi reseived Zaal Aragvis
Eristavi with great honor but Elizbar was resigned and in 1658 "Iase
Iases dze" (Iase sun of Iase) was engaged to the position of
Ksnis Eristavi. Bat Elizbar managet to return his post again.
In 1659 Zaal Aragvis Eristavi with the other separatists retarned
to Georgia. In 1659 Iran had finished to settle 80,000 Turkmenian
families in Kakheti.
Having returned to Georgia the separatists refused to subdue the
Kartli king Vakhtang. The Georgian kingdom realizing the result
of the settlement of the Turkmenian tribes planned the opposite
At the beginning of March 1660 the king of Kartli Vakhtang V gathered
the army. One unit of the army was left near the junction to the
west Georgia and with the rest of it he entered Imereti . With this
he obtained an evidence but in hiding he returned to the East Georgia,
attacked Bakhtrioni and Alaverdi castles where the Turkmenians were
Fortified, defeated them and disappeared at dawn.
The legend about destroying the Turkmenian tribes was rapidly spread
in Kakheti. Zaal Aragvis Eristavi, Elizbar ksnis Eristavi, his brother
Shalva, Bidzina Cholokashvili and Tush-Pshav- Khevsurebi (regions
of Georgia) were suspected to have done it.
The group of investigators was sent there by Iran, but in vain.
After that Iase Iases dze became the Eristavi of Ksani. Elizbar
and his brother Shalva, with their families found their shelters
The contemporary historians of Kakheti Liberation denied the opinion
of destroying those tribes by Vakhtang V, Zaal Aragvis Eristavi,
Elizbar Ksnis Eristavi, his brother Shalva and Bidzina Cholokashvili
while the scholars of the later period who were the ideologists
of the Bagrationi remarked that the liberation of Kakheti had been
done by Zaal Aragvis Eristavi, the Eristavs of Ksani Elizbar and
Shalva and Bidzina Cholokashvili.
At the result of historical researchers it was established that
Kakheti had been liberated by Vakhtang V, the king of Kartli but
the separatists hadn't participated in it at all.
In May, 1660 after the death of Zaal Aragvis Eristavi the separatists
were frightened and surrendered the Iran Government to be given
the shelter. Having not taken the religion of Mohamedanism in 1662
they were killed with torture. Later there bodies were brought to
Georgian and buried in Ikorta Charch.
In 1665, Vakhtang V, who had been summoned to Iran, entrusted his
sons to destroy Iase Ksnis Eristavi and they did that successfully.
Iase was exiled. Datuna (sun of Shalva) became the Eristavi of Ksani
Material were used from book Vladimer Gkhunashvili
"Epic tale about past Ksani gorge"